Thursday, September 18, 2014
"Realistic Monetarism"- "Realistic- Reality based - Monetarism". It's real, it works!!!
10:07 am pdt
Realistic Monetarism-- I was asked "if it's "real"? Would it work? Yes, it's real..Yes, it works!!! Consider
this..We are currently spending approx 2.8 billion dollars per day more than we take in, in tax revenues...We are currently
sitting at $17.8 trillion dollars on our National Debt.. That's $17.8 trillion dollars we have spent as a nation over and
above tax revenues..Some we have borrowed..some we have essentially created out of thin air..
We need to consider the
possibility that those funds borrowed, were borrowed, in order to help maintain the illusion behind U.S. and other global
fiat currencies, which is, that currecy/money represents a finite resource within our traditional understandings of the term.--
..I.E. that money is a resource like wheat, or gasoline..... but it is not..
Look what we have been doing..the wheels
have not come off the bus....Let's lose the pretext.. Let's let everyone in on the game..
Clearly we see the potentials..It's
the future..It's where we are going if we are going to survive, productively, progressively as a species..
properly managed..hundreds of billions could be additionally infused into the economy..to the benefit of the poor, the sick,.
the environment..ect.. and done safely!!!
This process could occur in every national economy across the globe..
Monetarism".. It's the future!! It's the next global economic "ism".
Colin Stuart McCoy
Sunday, July 27, 2014
4:00 pm pdt
As long as the west continues to embrace a "Neville Chamberlain" strategy in the Ukraine, rest assured, history
will repeat itself given the opportunity..At this time, due to delays, it is very unlikely that it would be productive for
the United States to provide much more aggressive, non-economic/sanction based support without the support of it's European
allies. Europe and the USA need to be thinking in terms of a "Berlin Airlift" united style of effort, in conjunction
with the same degree of resolve found during that period, as well as that seen during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Ship, tanker
leases need to be being actively and publicly explored. Alternative supply lines created. I E. assets required to make an
embargo of Russian gas/oil feasible need to be seen being actively sought out. While earlier in the crisis some moves could
have been made without telegraphing significantly ahead of time these related intentions, now the Russian Government needs
to be told quietly, non publicly.. that they need to seal their borders with Eastern Ukraine, in regards to any and all military
support, The cross border artillery use must end..Or NATO/USA will come in and help seal the borders, and keep, create
the foundations for peace, themselves,, and if Russia wants a war they cannot win,, If President Putin wishes to explore an
end to his political career similar to what Saddam Hussein experienced..Then by all means order Russian military forces to
fire upon allied peace keepers. Bottom line, the violence must stop, if the current situation is allowed to continue, odds
of escalation, or unacceptable outcomes will grow.
(Ukraine should be a battle of ideas, with the Ukrainian government
and people able to freely interact/ socialize and do business with those people, organizations that they individually or collectively
feel would be in their best interests,,Instead of what is currently ongoing..I would like the steps needed to end the violence
taken, followed by the international community getting to see the West, Russia, as well as the global community come together
in a spirit of co-operation, making the best proposals for Ukraine, and then I would like to see this process spread across
Re: Hardlines... Sometimes being able to see the brick wall that could potentially present, can allow more
co-operative policy creation/decisions, and dialog to occur?
Saturday, July 26, 2014
Africa, ongoing Ebola outbreak
12:57 pm pdt
I hope the people, organizations responsible for tracking and resolving such events are doing their jobs.. I would suggest/hope
that developed/western countries are putting in place the needed number of investigators, and trained medical personnel needed
to double, perhaps triple the numbers currently deployed. I would hope that these people would be ready to go within a couple
weeks if not sooner if the number of new cases does not drop significantly soon. Infected people escaping from hospitals in
a nations capital, or becoming highly symptomatic on jet airliners, not what we want to be seeing at this time. CSM
of consideration being..without sounding disproportionately concerned based upon the realities of Ebola's current degree of
communicability. Organisms will typically attempt to evolve in the direction that will give them the best chance of survival...Including
virus's... Each out break provides the virus an opportunity to evolve into a strain which could possess a greater degree of
communicability. Why play around, get out in front of the outbreak, eliminate potentials for said evolution.
Friday, June 20, 2014
Pope Francis-- Marijuana policy statement about as wrong as you can be.
5:04 pm pdt
Reports claim that Pope Francis is against the legalization of marijuana..Pope demonstrates he is still capable of being
about as wrong or demonstratively ignorant of needed reforms in this area as is humanly possible. Nothing "needed"
in support of justice, or truth, or the promotion of a healthier society exists within Pope's stated position.
11:26 am pdt
It is beginning to look increasingly unfortunate that Ukraine was not timely provided the needed resources to secure their
I think I remember this suggestion being made?
Sunday, June 1, 2014
11:54 am pdt
It has just been reported that the monthly death toll from sectarian, or anti government violence has climbed to nearly
800 persons.. Roughly being broken down as 600 civilian, and 200 security force personnel.
I keep hearing the
voice of some idiot saying "mission accomplished"..
I continue to see some clear similarities between current
events in Iraq, and those events that took place in Vietnam ending in 1975.
6/11/14 update.. News
reports have been coming in that report anti-gov forces have seized control of many towns and cities over the past 6 mths
give or take.."ISIS".
Monday, May 12, 2014
Update: What about separation of church and state? and Tigard Tualatin School District another troubling situation not addressed?
6:34 am pdt
On two Posts dated Aug 23,25, 2010..
I recently re-read these posts..I am not overly satisfied with the entirety
of these posts, as they tend to be overly wordy, and they lacked clarity on some important issues that I did not catch first
I think a point I was considering, one of many, was that we currently are able to separate from employment
in the public sector those people that belong or support notorious hate/discriminatory groups. I also found the efforts that
universities take to accommodate those students who are rightfully offended by the presence of such thinkers, who are members
of the teaching faculty, of interest. I think I then extrapolated, as our awareness's continue to grow about discriminatory
groups and processes..What about mainstream social groups or religions that have been causing life destroying harms through
their ongoing discriminatory "cultural/intellectual" processes. Why should a person or group get a pass on accountability
just because they claim the harm they do is based upon their faith/religion- I say that they, or their group should not..We
just need to be sure and not go too far into areas of past historical failures while we address these very real social shortcomings.
need to be sure and stay away from those other failures while we attempt to discuss and then resolve, in a positive fashion,
these very real societal harmful contributors.
And really if you have/had a religious organization/s willing to
use it's political/financial power to destroy lives or pass legislation that allows groups of people to be targeted by these
"church's" discriminatory processes, Why should the members of these organizations be surprised if they find that
by their actions, they/their groups have finally reached the point that the backlash to said actions becomes similar to that
experienced by the more notorious hate/discriminatory groups in our society.
(The realities behind these truths raises
some tough problems, but issues and problems that must be addressed regardless. How do we have real/honest needed conversations
about harmful processes and their real/actual origins, and create from those conversations other needed progressive growth
in awareness's or realities that will be actually able to aid human society in the time lines required. For human society
must face the real and pressing need to accomplish some very critical global/regional course corrections..and do so without
factually crossing lines that should not be crossed, or inflaming the irrational natures/reactions of those no longer
capable of having rational conversations about very important human social/cultural issues in need of reform/ improvement?)
think the general conclusions/concerns are still right on the money..I think that there is some measurable validity, as with
some forms of police profiling, that problematic behaviors may be noted or experienced within certain groups/or associative
organizations. I also think that some personal associations, such as being a card carrying KKK, or Skin Head member may be
a valid dis-qualifier for many public sector, tax payer funded positions of employment, and the courts of the U.S. agree.
So, to be clear, on the issue of hiring for public sector, tax payer funded employment positions..I do not support
any process that would, in the overwhelming number of real world possibilities, support any process where a persons religious
affiliations would be something that would have to be disclosed or even discussed, or sought after. Simple affiliation is
not a fair, safe, appropriate/reliable indicator in and of itself, in this particular area.
I do support more
vigorous hiring standards training and processes that would screen out those persons that have discriminatory beliefs. ( Pretty
much, discrimination in all things has a overwhelmingly strong link to ignorance and intellectual dishonesty. Address these
societal shortcomings and you would help eliminate discriminatory processes.)
Again acceptable processes would look
very much like those that have been successful in eliminating those persons that embrace racial or gender discrimination from
the ranks of public sector, tax payer funded employment positions. Noting that as of this date, in these areas room for improvement,
as problems still exists, remain.
Thursday, April 24, 2014
I am concerned that Putin's perception that Obama is a wimp may lead to further Russian Military intervention in the Ukraine
and the deaths of innocent civilians?
10:23 am pdt
Yup.. I hope I am wrong..
WWlll, wish I could say it's was absolutely not a possibility.
Family member asked if I thought Obama was a wimp. No, absolutely not. I just hope he has a better view of things than I do.
Which is a hope that I have found to be forlorn on more than one or two occasions in the past.
Wednesday, April 23, 2014
Ukraine- It's time for the U.S. and NATO to put troops on the ground in Ukraine.
11:41 am pdt
Western Intelligence should have an actionable idea about what the current degree of public support exists in eastern Ukraine,
regarding the militant pro Russian separatists. If the majority of the population just wants to get along and live in peace
with one another, and if the actions or threats of violence presented by the actions of the pro-Russian separatists is not
acceptable to the majority of the Eastern Ukraine populace..The time for NATO/U.S. ground forces to be quickly deployed in
effective defensive positions along the Ukrainian border with Russia, as well as the between the recently redrawn Crimean
borders and eastern Ukraine, Is now.
Key question then being.. If Russia/Putin effectively removed as a source of support
or sustenance for the pro-Russian separatists militant efforts will majority of eastern Ukrainian population
stand down and allow non-violent solutions to be created or found?
The Ukrainian national forces could
retake needed areas and facilities. Deal with the Crimea later.
We cannot telegraph Russia/President Putin that this
is in fact going to happen. President Putin/Russia needs to quickly exert it's/his full political-diplomatic capability, and
get the Pro-Russian separatists to honor the recent agreement, that calls for dis-armament and surrendering of Ukrainian assets
to current Ukrainian Gov. If that is, Russia/President Putin wishes to avoid the above NATO/U.S. move.
Tuesday, April 15, 2014
Tragic Jewish Center Shooting- Kansas
Our thoughts and prayers go out to the victims and families of the victims in this senseless incident. Arrested suspect, a
reported former kkk grand dragon..I will never understand this...How can a persons thoughts become so distorted/deranged.
These people, as well as his "intended" targets had never done anything negative towards the suspect..Mindless hate
run amok..was there a possibility for intervention? prior?? So absolutely pointless.
6:24 pm pdt
Sunday, April 6, 2014
News reports that China will soon have first military base in Africa
Above mentioned base is reported to be located in Zimbabwe. Further reports indicate it is to be an airbase.. Who could have
possibly predicted such developments...:-) CSM
3:24 pm pdt
Monday, March 3, 2014
The Ukraine, Russia, President Putin
1:32 pm pst
Dear President Putin,
Many of your thoughts, beliefs, are well known.
Conjecture about a restoration of a political
entity similar to that which existed during the days of the USSR is not realistic under the realities of current global evolutions.
As to current situation in the Ukraine..
It is reasonable, as long as you go no further and damage to/or loss of human
life does not further result, to expect Ukraine, NATO, The West to support long term security arrangements for Russian
military bases/interests in the Crimea
It is reasonable to, as long as you back up, and remove Russian Military
operations from Ukrainian sovereign territory, to expect, Ukraine, NATO, The West to support strongly worded trade protections/access
treaty's supportive of Russian export interests.
Sir, Economically Your/Russia position is the weaker one, you cannot
prevail, you can only do more harm to your country than to others in both the long term, as well as short term.
the Russian position is untenable, no chance for victory under the horrible prospects related to what will transpire if the
major parties involved come into such a conflict.
You can still save face, as things stand now..but if things go much
further, that will not be possible and ultimately it is projected that your own people will become frustrated with your efforts
and your energies will be spent in trying to survive politically at home.
Colin Stuart McCoy
- The Sunrise Foundation
Update: 3/19/14 President Putin is pushing too hard. The key to best possible outcomes
and positively managed future potential lie in non-violence, dialog and diplomacy. The aggressiveness with which President
Putin is pursuing his objectives will force the West and NATO to respond with not only more aggressive sanctions but resource
re-allocations which will allow Russian gas exports shipped through the Ukraine to be eventually blocked, with the West, NATO
then being in a better position to withstand the difficulties that would be more pronounced otherwise. President Putin fears/knows
that if he allows pure self determination, conducted without the presence of Russian troops...That issues of personal freedom,
and personal economic advantage will become apparent to all involved. Ukraine shifts/re-aligns with the west. His conduct,
if it results in more death and property destruction will devolve into open military conflict that the west will not simply
sit aside and watch. If his efforts continue, and he pushes further into eastern Ukraine, he will trigger an economic situation
in which he/Russia will not benefit, will actually be seriously negatively impacted. Plus he will have created a civil war
potential within the re-drawn borders. This is not an acceptable way to progress. As has been noted, Putin's behavior, negates
much of the realities historic and otherwise upon which strengthens the Russian position-perspective, and paints Putin as
just another petty dictator with ignorant Russian television personalities putting out ridiculous "nuclear threat"
language potentials. Dangerous, distracting, unacceptable.
Update: 3/28/14 If western intelligence analysts conclude
that Putin does in fact intend to invade/push further into Ukraine militarily. If the goal is to take action that will prevent
this, and in so doing prevent all that would result. The U.S. and NATO, upon invitation from Ukraine, must put troops on the
ground. It must be made clear that if Russia intends to invade, that the Russian military will have to go through the U.S.,
NATO forces..Implication being, if this is how Putin wants to play it.. It will mean war with the west. ( I am at a loss as
to what Putin is trying to accomplish- to me it appears-troop build up, military supply line establishment- to be insanity
President Putin needs to be told, if it is concluded that the Russian military activity along the
Ukrainian border is not "normal"..that said activity must cease and de-escalate or U.S., NATO Troops will begin
to be deployed, upon Ukrainian invitation, along the border regions within Ukraine.
Update: 4/11/14 Russia claims Ukraine
has an outstanding debt obligation for past Gas/energy shipments/discounts, in the range of approximately $34 Billion give
or take..If true..and if we value Ukraine having the best chance to positively resolve all current issues with Russia.. I
think the U.S. & NATO countries need to put a fair payment plan on the table that protects everyones interest, and should
do so as quickly as possible.
Tuesday, January 28, 2014
10:25 am pst
Very well done...tremendous respect/humility for sacrifices made by those willing to fight for their ideals. Bravery of
the nature being displayed is where we can see that collective repositories of knowledge and awareness related to those things
that people used to proclaim, as being self evident, still exist and are proclaimed once again.."we (humanity) will be
free".."we will not give up our right to self determination".
My thoughts were shared
on this developing situation back in March of 2012. It is always hard to tell if your voice or efforts are being heard..Sometimes
it's a matter of thoughtful timing, and multiple creative placements best suited for hoped for dissemination. Other times
you just have to try and be one of the shouting, horn blowing, drum beating "Whos" as in "Horton hears a",
and hope/pray for the best.
Wednesday, January 22, 2014
Reform efforts continue to progress.
4:24 pm pst
Efforts aimed at global economic reforms, related to currency/global economics, continue to move forward. Our reform
efforts related to eliminating harmful "Religion/religious" based impacts also continue to progress. Colin Stuart
Thursday, January 2, 2014
Past post revisited- 9-9-12 The Democrat Party USA Utterly Corrupt and Manipulative
1:44 pm pst
Occasionally I will go back through past posts..and find problems with their content or construction,, The above "Titled"
post is such a case. In this post I was making a strong statement about serious integrity issues within the Democrat party
USA.. These conclusions were based, in part, upon an event at the National Convention in which language had been changed
in an important part of the party platform. In my past post it is "garbled/mangled" concerning what the outcome
of the voice vote was. A motion to Keep/restore the deleted language was held.Clearly,clearly, clearly--3 times a vote was
called, and it was clear that the majority present wanted the language restored..Yet party leaders corrupted the vote tally
process, right in front of multiple cameras..and called the results in favor of the clear minority.
Wednesday, September 25, 2013
Great Movie: Last Call at the Oasis
9:58 pm pdt
Everyone owes it to themselves to track down and
watch the above mentioned film.
It addresses problems
with the the fresh water
supply of the U.S. as well as the global community.
Film was released 2011,
and is based upon a book
written by a Mr. Alex Prud"homme. Title of this book
is "RIpple Effect".
Tuesday, September 17, 2013
There is no difference in the problem solving process....
12:32 pm pdt
When one considers the societal harms presented by
organizations that discriminate..
It matters not if
the organization calls itself the
The Aryan Brotherhood or
Church of Christian love of God and Jesus
The solution to the problem is, will be the same.
Update: 12/13/13- In order to be consistent I should probably add the "Boyscouts USA" to my list
of real and fictional names of organizations that discriminate in harmful ways.
Saturday, September 14, 2013
Once more into the breach...What Problems does Colin Stuart McCoy & The Sunrise Foundation find/have with religion
2:31 pm pdt
The areas in which I and my Foundation have problems
with religions fall into the following areas...
If it supports or promotes elitism or exclusion.
We get to go to heaven and you don't , or
heaven is not as great as ours..
2.) If it promotes or supports in any fashion
based upon Race/Ethnicity, Gender, or
You're deemed less fit
due to Race, being a Woman,
or your Sexual Orientation, because of which you are
unable to participate in the
same equal capacity as a
those deemed more qualified or acceptable.
or you are unable to enjoy the same cultural-legal
benefits as straight couples..
3.) It requires that you abandon processes of reason,
or an under standing, or respect for
the scientific process. If it promotes intellectual
punishes those who resist.. or
simply wish to question..
Such as ,,
Jesus walked on water. "Really?
- How?".. or work
product of the same quality, or similar to, that
produced by the Mormon "Prophets"
If your religion will not allow discussion, debate or
dissension based upon reason or fact..It is a
I believe that a goal we should work towards is one in
which Tax payer funded/related Jobs/positions
to fully embrace principles of non-discrimination..
I.E. K-12 public schools, our military, our courts,
I believe it is intellectually dishonest to expect that
those persons who embrace discriminatory
systems are fully capable of maintaining the positive
non-discriminatory work environments of Tax payer
I believe anyone unwilling to disavow discriminatory
belief structures should/could
be grounds for
disqualification from tax payer funded/related positions...
Be intellectually honest..If
your offended by this post please consider the following. If you are part of an organization, program, belief structure etc..
that discriminates, and/or uses it's financial/political strength to promote said discrimination..If you are part of group
meetings in which you listen or participate in a dialog process supportive of discrimination/vigilantism etc.. you are guilty
of hurting people..This is what a backlash to those harmful process can look like. and again, when compared to the lives destroyed
, the pain and suffering you have caused, this post is very, very tame..
original post cont..
Being supportive of non-discriminatory policies,
or procedures supportive of equality should not be
be twisted in concept or meaning as including
a willingness to allow those who discriminate or support
groups or policies equal access.- Historically
recognized guidelines similar to those found/created to
racial discrimination should be expected.)
Update insert: November 26th.. I just wanted to congratulate
the U.S. Senate for passing Nov. 7th, the Employment Non-Discrimination Act. (ENDA). This would go a very long way towards
accomplishing exactly what we seek. Unfortunately the U.S. House, made up of a disproportionate number of folks that still
think the earth is flat, will not follow suit. CSM
Original post cont...
I think it matters not
what day or holidays you worship, or celebrate.. I think it matters not whether or not if your faith requires that
you eat in a specific way.. I think it matters not if you want to believe in such things as planet Kolob,,it matters
not a bit..However, causing problems for those that wish to exercise their free speech rights and say something
is utterly ridiculous--when it clearly is...,
or being supportive of the types of discrimination or
--Is a material failure that I do have problems with.
For in these negatives lie
the germination for Fascism,
Totalitarianism, and Orwellian Dictatorships that represent
proven dangers to the human race and our
I do not support asking a person what
their faith or lack
there of is, in a screening process for Tax payer
I do think it is fine to ask a person if they support
processes of equality and non-discrimination, and that
very specific is fine.
I believe that Tax exempt privilege should be reserved
only for organizations that
conform to societal expectations
related to non-discrimination
I believe that tax payer supported processes
mandate to promote, protect, and enforce a bubble of
non-discrimination..This provides a safe haven for
We have over two thousand years of history, a history
of failure that continues through today. Failed
that have harmed and continue to harm. This must end
Some might say this process would be overly
I think that when balanced against the above history
of failure, the processes of correction are a
compared to the harms that have continuously been
propagated by failed aspects within various religious
I think it would be wise for all participants of various
religious related activities
to consider strongly that any
process reflective of spiritual values of Good, Truth etc..
Any processes that may
have the support of a Supreme
Being or Governing Process.. walk in lock step with
the general conclusions, directions
of this post...
Keeping in mind that current private sector areas that
are currently open or supportive of
processes would remain largely unaffected.
Colin Stuart McCoy
( I wanted to take
a moment to explain something
else related to this topic..we are involved in an
educational process. Prior posts
related to this topic
have all been designed or meant to get the intellectual
process engaged..To challenge.
We do not support in any way the targeting of
individuals based upon religious affiliations..
here is why.. Many people who belong to various
religious organizations were born into them.
For some it's
an integral aspect of their cultural
A study of the religious phenomena, surveys etc..
demonstrate that within almost every religious
faith there are clear signs present of members working
for needed progressive change..
This can often just be a by product of the complexities
of the human condition,
our society, our families.
Within every faith you can find those that clearly do
their best to walk in the
foot steps of the righteous
teachers..While right next to them you can find the
most ardent discriminationist
or power conduit for the
continued spread of darkness.
So in this matter, simple affiliation is not enough
use as a dis-qualifier.. So for purposes related to this
post, stay away from it.
again, in this, we also have a clear
history of the horrors created by those who would not. )
Colin Stuart McCoy
I think it would not be a bad idea for people who consider
themselves to be spiritual
or persons of faith.. to consider
the following perspective.
Many, many people consider their particular faith
the/their vehicle to what ever post life existence may await..
I think they should consider if perhaps
this is an erroneous
Some might, in a spirit of philosophical generosity extend
faiths an acceptance of multiple vehicle models that
can get you where you want to go, or will be going, or not.
Again I think this should also be considered to be a an erroneous perspective.
what people should consider, is that it matters not
what faith you have or do not have. That all people upon
have a seat on the bus..and theoretically all they
have to do is just sit there.. Just live...and the bus will
take them to what is, or is not...no secret
passwords are required, no hidden tricks or requirements
The various faiths should be looked upon as simply reading
material, like a multi choice magazine
A person could have no knowledge of the materials on said
magazine rack, and the bus would still do
but as we all know, having good reading material available,
and making good choices as to what
to read, and finding
those things of value within said material..seems to always
make a journey more enjoyable,
educational, and can help a
person to often get more out of the trip.
Update: 4/23/14.. I was asked
if I thought "Bad"? people "might" have a different/less enjoyable/or shorter post life experience? I
think it would be wise to consider that the answer to this question could be/is very likely yes. So what is Good, what is
Bad.. is the harm you cause needed, material or redeemable. We have for centuries defined very function-able identifiers for
good or evil..Is it a lie, is it a manipulation based upon a lie. Did it come into being based upon force or reason..Was it
based upon cultural theft needed to enforce additional lies or was it based upon a pure origination. Is it possessed of fraud..It's
not rocket science, you just can't be an intellectual/spiritual coward and expect to be able to easily discern truth. Many/most?
people want Black or White, they want Hard Rules that ease the responsibilities born of creation..Some times this can work,
for a while..but very often the realities are found within "guidelines" that require a persons daily active participation..
Wednesday, August 14, 2013
Currant state of affairs USA vs/re Asimov's Foundation series universe
12:05 pm pdt
When a society reaches the point of corruption, or
dysfunction that it is unable to effectively govern
in said efforts to govern will appear.
Under these simple truths...many shortcomings
within the efforts of
the Obama administration can
be more readily understood... Does not explain away
all the failures...communicative
Nor does this "understanding" count as acceptance,
or any form of approval toward
those issues found to
be "problematic..some very much so..
It's simple a statement of "awareness"
caused through other realities than
incompetence/ignorance or ,,
But then why is not the
bully pulpit being used to reach
to the people more effectively???
Tuesday, May 14, 2013
RE: Recent IRS disclosures..etc..
I find it very disturbing, that continueing trends seem
6:51 pm pdt
to indicate..that it matters not whether it is the
or Republicans who hold sway, but after just
a short period in which one party may display a process
how ever slight...
That shortly there after behavior will then be displayed
the clearly indicates that no
percentage of a said parties leadership etc.. can keep
from demonstrating that they have
not a clue about
the principles under which our country should be
Colin Stuart McCoy
Update 5/22/13: Recently an IRS head claims 5th amendment
protection when questioned, always
an encouraging sign
from a U.S. Government official.